IoT: Considerations for Drives
While network connectivity of drives is a hot topic, careful consideration prior to implementation is important. What protocol(s) are offered? What will be the answer to that same question in five years? Is Ethernet the obvious choice? This presentation will offer practical experience gained from actual applications to highlight key considerations when implementing networked drives in support of an IoT strategy. Topics will include customer requirements, network topologies, how IoT impacts drive design, safety and security considerations and early adopter applications.
Mark Lewis, Vice President – Sales & Marketing • Dart Controls, Inc.
Reducing Noise in a Rotating Machine: The Need for a Silent Motor
This session presents the analysis of a the magnetic forces in a motor, the displacement these forces create on the motor structure and the noise generated. The power of the coupling between electromagnetic and NVH analysis tools opens the possibility to evaluate the impact of the design on noise reduction. Find out how to silence your motor.
Philippe Wendling, VP Business Development Electromagnetics • Altair
How to Save Space and Increase Motor Performance with New Encoder Technologies
Asynchronous motors are extremely versatile due to their robust design. This demands extensive and specific measures for encoders. Especially during mounting of an encoder the mechanics can be overloaded. This could lead to a prematurely damage, so that the average service life is not reached. New technologies for asynchronous and large motors allows more robustness and more flexibility. Additionally, new technologies offer a very compact design for encoders and motors. This opens up new possibilities when dimensioning the motor and for installation in tight mounting spaces. The benefit is a reduction of development and material costs which saves costs and increase the motor performance.
John Stanczuk, Vice President, Sales and Marketing • Kuebler, Inc.
How Magnetic Encoders Pave the Way to Migrate from Standalone Modular Encoders to Integrated Designs
Bolt on modular encoders allow for a wide variety of options but at a cost penalty. Integrated optical encoders have a cost savings but flexibility can be more difficult such as tooling up disks with various resolutions. Integrated magnetic encoders also have a cost savings but offer more flexibility because they are programmable (resolution, line driver, index options). Magnetic encoders have the advantages: smaller size; compatibility with dirty and harsh environments; and proven robust in high performance applications in a variety of equipment. Applications of both modular and integrated designs will be discussed.
Mark LaCroix, Pricipal Applications Engineer • The Timken Company
An Analysis of the PWM Strategy Impacting Current Sensing Options in Motor Control Applications
High performance 3 phase brushless motor control rely on accurate measurement of current during the PWM cycle. There are choices in the generation of PWM signals which are center or edge aligned that are used to excite the phases. On the other hand, the current sensor could be placed on the high side, low side of the inverter bridge or directly on the phases. This paper looks into the impact of each PWM architecture on the choice of the location of the current sensor. A clear understanding of the tradeoffs is essential in specifying the requirements of the sensor circuitry and the associated measurement implications.
James David • Eaton
Efficiency Improvements in BLDC Motor with Analog Based ECU
Analog circuitry based ECU for BLDC motors are still the technology of choice in some safety-critical applications such as Aircraft and Aerospace due to their lower cost design validation and ability to work in extreme thermal conditions. Rotor position in analog circuitry based ECU is typically consist of the magnetized ring magnet and Hall sensors. Angular inaccuracy of the hall sensor signal can cause a significant reduction of efficiency in the BLDC-ECU system. This presentation will examine these efficiency reduction factors and give recommendation how to overcome their effect. Presentation will discuss the challenges and results of the developed transient FEA system model to account hall sensors misalignment and its impact on the system efficiency current ripple and other effects. Test confirmation of the developed approach will be demonstrated on an aircraft fuel pump motor example.
Dr. Sergei F Kolomeitsev • Advanced Motors Electromagnetics LLC
Introduce ASTM A1071M-11 and the Manufacturability of Motor Magnets and Assemblies
ASTM A1071M-11 has been released since 2011 but it hasn’t been used by magnet users widely. ASTM A1071M-11 defines a standard test method for evaluating hydrothermal corrosion resistance of permanent magnet alloys. It also quantifies the corrosiveness of magnet by using BCT Grade and will help magnet/motor design engineers to choose proper material for their applications. More often than not, we have seen specifications on drawings are very tight in terms of dimensional tolerance, geometric tolerance, magnetic properties, magnetic orientation, coating thickness, radius and angle etc. Roughly 7.25 million pieces of rotor magnet have been made with inner diameter tolerance range of 0.0005 inches on NdFeB ring but most magnets don’t have to have this kind of accuracy. The guideline of how to choose proper specifications will be discussed from magnet manufacturing stand of point.
David Dai, Co-Founder and Vice President • Pacific PAC Technologies, Inc.
Advancements in Modular Drive Technology and Hardware Miniaturization Combine to Reduce Machine Footprint
Recent advancements in drive hardware, software and cabling have cleared the way for machine builders to keep machine footprint concerns under control. New modular drive concepts, particularly for servo motion, enable motion designers to implement multiple axes in a single drive module, power units that eliminate mains filters and integrated safety modules that eliminate dedicated, standalone systems. Even more compact distributed I/O solutions with integrated drive technology further reduce space requirements by offering options for servo, stepper and DC motor control in 12- or 24 mm wide housings. Motor cabling has also been targeted for increased space savings with the advent of One Cable Technology (OCT). Servo motors with OCT integrate the previously separate power and feedback channels into one standard cable, providing an instant 50 percent reduction in cables and connectors while also reducing the size of drag chains and conduits. OCT is available on powerful modular drives from 100 VAC to 480 VAC 3PH and the compact I/Os with drive functionality that can handle 4.8 A RMS per drive. Attendees to this educational presentation will learn how to apply modular drive technology in order to reduce footprint in modern machines, along with best practices in motion system design and drive programming in a PC-based control context.
Matt Prellwitz, Drive Technology Application Specialist • Beckhoff Automation
Rapid Electric Motor and Drive Efficiency Mapping, Going Beyond a Typical Power Analyzer
Evaluating motor efficiency has become extremely important since significant efforts are focused on more efficient electrical drives. The main issue is how to implement an automated procedure that obtains the motor or drive efficiency for all operating points accurately and rapidly. Ordinary test methods using a typical power analyzer only offer inadequate numerical results. To get beyond numerical results, all electrical and mechanical signals must be acquired simultaneously and continuously at high sample rates coupled with detailed custom analysis and fast data transfer to automation systems making it possible to accurately and rapidly perform electric motor and drive efficiency mapping.
Mike Hoyer, Applications Engineer • HBM Test and Measurement
Evaluating the Potential for Cost Savings using Silicon Carbide in Medium Voltage, Variable Frequency Motor Drives
The use of wide bandgap silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductors allows for energy efficient operation of medium and high voltage motor drives in high temperature environments. Additionally, SiC could enable significant reductions in the footprint and balance of system costs for variable frequency drives (VFDs). However, the cost of SiC wafers, devices, and power modules remain high and adoption low. We present a bottom-up manufacturing cost analysis of SiC ingots, wafers, devices, modules, and VFDs, focusing on medium-voltage industrial applications, providing insights into potential system-level cost savings with SiC as well as how innovations may contribute to expanded adoption of this technology.
Kelsey Horowitz, Techno-Economic Analyst • NREL
Cautions When Selecting Magnetic Materials for Motors
Selecting the wrong motor design for an application can have momentous results. But selecting a sub-optimal magnetic material can also present problems including serious shortcomings in motor efficiency, premature device failure, and increased lifetime operating cost. The drive to smaller motor size and higher power density has resulted in higher rpm motors with increased switching frequency and operating temperature. These require reassessment of magnetic materials. Learn about updates in lamination materials and the new cross-over in comparative performance of Neo and SmCo magnets. Higher switching frequency also creates eddy current effects in conductive metal magnets. Learn how to mitigate eddy currents and maximize your motor performance.
Steve Constantinides, Director of Technology • Arnold Magnetic Technologies
Bitstream Control: High Efficiency, High Performance Current Control Structure
Delta Sigma ADCs are often used for current measurement in motion control applications. As they are quite common in audio applications, they call attention with tunable tradeoff between bandwidth and accuracy by modification of a digital filter. In this presentation a new current control scheme is shown, which expands the Delta Sigma concept not only to current measurement, but also to current and voltage control in field oriented control (FOC) of BLDC. Efficiency and controller performance is compared in reference to a system with standard FOC.
Onno Martens, Design Engineer • TRINAMIC Motion Control
Transforming a Common Induction Motor into a Low Cost, High Efficiency Variable Speed System with the Resonant Field Exciter
Variable speed drives can improve system efficiency by as much as 50% and have been available for almost 30 years. However by one estimate, variable speed has penetrated only 10% of possible applications. Clearly the cost and complexity of switching to variable speed drives has been a barrier. Until now. Join us as we walk through the transformation of an ordinary commercial induction motor into a Resonant Field Exciter fed Wound Field Motor. See how applying our patent pending Resonant Field Exciter technology provides reliable, high efficiency, low cost variable speed without magnets or inverters all while utilizing the basic components and manufacturing processes common to motor manufacturing worldwide.
Gary Box, Chief Technology Officer • Digital Motor Holdings
Experimental Demonstration of Sensorless Controlled >90 kRPM VFD Cooled with 100 °C Liquid
This presentation will show experimentally measured power loss, efficiency, and switching performance of a 100°C liquid cooled VFD used to control an electrically assisted turbo-charger. The hybrid electric truck application and VFD design will be briefly reviewed, followed by the experimental data obtained on our in-house motor-generator test stand operating at >90 kRPM and >10 kW. The sensorless motor control approach will also be discussed, along with experimental results highlighting control performance.
Dr. Troy Beechner, Power Electronic Technology Group Lead • Mainstream Engineering Corp.
Improving Efficiency and Increasing Torque Transmission in Drive Connections with Minimal Redesign
One major challenge for drive/motor designers is to increase the amount of torque load on bolted joints. This leads to exceeding safety factor limits, simulation limits, and time limits as development times are reduced to meet the market’s demands. Thin diamond-coated shims create possibilities for compact designs while increasing the amount of torque transferred in bolted joints. Typical friction materials may consist of coated steel with partially embedded diamonds. When the shim is placed between two components in a bolted connection, the diamonds “bite” into the surface, creating a microform fit and significantly increasing friction between the two parts.
Andrew Hershberger, Technical Application Development Manager • 3M
More is Less: Counter-Intuitive Elegance
At first blush, the concept of a dual-stator, 36 pole, 18 phase, permanent magnet motor sounds like Rube Goldburg levels of complexity and inefficiency. The counter-intuitive reality, however, is that this design produces elegance, efficiency, and economy of scale. This is the Field Modulation Motor. We will discuss the features of this dissonant design, its performance, and its unprecedented forgiveness in tolerances and materials. Moreover, we will challenge classic assumptions about simplicity, complexity and efficiency. In any discipline, bias, assumption and insular perspectives inhibit discovery and innovation, and, occasionally, novel insight frees us of the ruts the familiar has formed.
Carl Copeland, President • Floor 36, Inc.
Increasing Motor/Driver Flexibility
Why are we locked into 3 wire 3 phase drivers? Are standard 3 phase H bridge driver configurations really the best arrangement? There are applications where the answer is clearly no. New multi-phase controller chips, lower cost transistors and novel architectures led us to reconsider the older mainstream thought process. When compared with a standard 3 phase drive at the same power level, an 18 phase driver design demonstrates cost parity, a better packaging form factor, improved efficiency, reliability and redundancy, and flexibility in motor characteristics.
George Bennett, President • Optimal Motion
Recent Advances in Motor-Generator & Control Technologies – High Speed Motors and Synchronous Reluctance Motors
To meet competitive industrial demands, motor and control technologies are advancing at significantly fast rate. We will focus on two technologies at this presentation. One is ultra high speed (>30,000RPM) motors and generators for aerospace and industrial applications. We will discuss about new material, electronic power switches, and control technologies to meet ultra high speed requirements. The second is about advantages of Reluctance Synchronous Motors (RSM) and their control technologies. We will present about motor design and control algorithms, and discuss our test results in comparison with other popular motor types.
Dal Y. Ohm, President • Drivetech, Inc.
Fast Current Loop with Integrated Drive Controller
Emerging industrial servo drives demand precise and fast torque control to enable superior performance in a wide range of applications. This requires a higher control bandwidth for torque / current controller, along with precision current and position sensors. In addition, such system applications need a good real time connectivity, typically EtherCAT, for HMI and to manage distributed control. Integrating all these subsystems in to the drive system together with achieving time critical computation have justified the use of multiple MCUs or high end FPGAs or a combination of both. However, the emerging integrated SoCs / modern DSPs provide a high computational bandwidth, parallel processing, floating point and trigonometric support and a certain level of configurable hardware logics to enable implementation of most of the drive features / subsystems at an optimal cost. These SoC features help to reduce the delay time from sample to control to sub 2uS and also achieve higher current loop bandwidth for a given PWM frequency. In addition to increasing the bandwidth, it enables motor operation at higher speeds for a given PWM frequency compared to the traditional control schemes. This paper reviews fast current loop with the emerging highly integrated SoC/MCUs and discusses how it enables superior performance.
Ramesh Ramamoorthy, Sam Sabapathy • Texas Instruments, Inc.
Fast and Precise Measurements of Magnetic Rotor Systems: Quality Control Efficient Engines
Accelerated by enhancements of electric mobility, testing of electric motors has become of increasing importance in the automotive industry. Due to inhomogeneous magnetic fields an inaccurate PM rotor makes an electric motor inefficient and reduces the engine power directly. To this day, a fast and precise rotor measuring device for 100 percent quality control is not available. Matesy has developed a rotor measuring station based on 3-axis Hall-sensors for 3D field measurement, magneto-optical sensor module for fast and high-resolution field visualization and a distance sensor for simultaneous geometry measurement. With up to 12.000 measuring points per rotation the set-up provides enormous speed advantages with high lateral resolution. Based on high measurement speeds a 100 percent inline inspection of PM rotors is possible.
Rocco Holzhey, Head of MOS Department, INNOVENT e.V.
New Concept for Integrated Motor Drive in Industrial Application
Integrated motor drive in industrial application has been around for a few decades, but the technology has not been widely accepted by the market apart from the sub integral horse power motor applications. The integral horse power integrated motor drive has been limited mostly to combining a standard drive on top of a standard motor. A new concept of ‘variable speed motor’ has the promise to be a drop-in replacement for current standard induction motors both in terms of size and features. This variable speed motor is based on a fractional slot concentrated winding stator with ferrite magnet rotor. A compact and highly efficient integrated drive based on common low voltage (<200V) MOSFET technology will be arranged in multiphase configuration with series cascading between multiple 3 phase cells depending on the bus voltage. A few steps towards this goal are presented here. Prototype tests have shown that an 11kW motor with ferrite magnets with similar efficiency and performance of an equivalent IE3 class induction motor has a 40 percent reduction in length of the machine, thus making room for the drive within the same motor frame. Voltage balance between cascaded cells is an issue in any series cascaded converter. Verification of cell voltage balance in a series connected drive is conducted using 4 cells of 3 phase drives with each MOSFET rated at 60V and 10A. The 4 cells are connected in series and fed by a 160V DC bus. Tests have shown a potential for self-balancing of series cells when operated in BLDC control mode. Thus this highly efficient drive with no additional heat sink requirement is compact enough to fit within the same frame of the motor.
Ghanshyam Shrestha, Principal Scientist, ABB Inc.